What Medical Assistants Do
Medical assistants complete administrative and clinical tasks in the offices of physicians, podiatrists, chiropractors, and other health practitioners. Their duties vary with the location, specialty, and size of the practice.
Medical assistants typically do the following:
- Take and record patient history and personal information
- Measure vital signs
- Help the physician with patient examinations
- Give patients injections as directed by the physician
- Schedule patient appointments
- Prepare blood for laboratory tests
Medical assistants take and record patients’ personal information. They must be able to keep that information confidential and discuss it only with other medical personnel who are involved in treating the patient.
Electronic health records (EHRs) are changing medical assistants' jobs. More and more physicians are adopting EHRs, moving all their patient information online. Assistants need to learn the EHR software that their office uses.
Medical assistants should not be confused with physician assistants, who examine, diagnose, and treat patients under a physician's supervision.
In larger practices or hospitals, medical assistants may specialize in either administrative or clinical work.
Administrative medical assistants often fill out insurance forms or code patients’ medical information. They often answer telephones and schedule patient appointments. Assistants may work closely with hospital administrators and laboratory services. Some assistants buy and store supplies and equipment for the office.
Clinical medical assistants have different duties, depending on the state where they work. They may do basic laboratory tests, dispose of contaminated supplies, and sterilize medical instruments. They may have additional responsibilities, such as instructing patients about medication or special diets, preparing patients for x rays, removing stitches, drawing blood, or changing dressings.
Some medical assistants specialize according to the type of medical office where they work. The following are examples of specialized medical assistants:
Ophthalmic medical assistants and optometric assistants help ophthalmologists and optometrists, respectively, provide eye care. They show patients how to insert, remove, and care for contact lenses. Ophthalmic medical assistants also may help an ophthalmologist in surgery.
Podiatric medical assistants work closely with podiatrists (foot doctors). They may make castings of feet, expose and develop x rays, and help podiatrists in surgery.
How to Become a Medical Assistant
Most medical assistants have postsecondary education such as a certificate. Others enter the occupation with a high school diploma and learn through on-the-job training.
High school students interested in a career as a medical assistant should take courses in biology, chemistry, and anatomy.
Medical assistants typically graduate from postsecondary education programs, and employers may prefer to hire assistants who have completed these programs. Programs for medical assisting are available from community colleges, vocational schools, technical schools, and universities and take about 1 year to complete. These programs usually lead to a certificate or diploma. Some community and junior colleges offer 2-year programs that lead to an associate’s degree. All programs have classroom and laboratory portions that include lessons in anatomy and medical terminology.
Some medical assistants have a high school diploma or equivalent and learn their duties on the job.
There are no formal educational requirements for becoming a medical assistant in most states. Some states require assistants to graduate from an accredited program, pass an exam, or both to do advanced tasks, such as taking x rays and giving injections.
Analytical skills. Medical assistants must be able to understand and follow medical charts and diagnoses. They may be required to code a patient’s medical records for billing purposes.
Detail oriented. Medical assistants need to be precise when taking vital signs or recording patient information. Physicians and insurance companies rely on accurate records.
Interpersonal skills. Medical assistants need to be able to discuss patient information with other medical personnel, such as physicians. They often interact with patients who may be in pain or in distress, so they need to be able to act in a calm and professional manner.
Technical skills. Medical assistants should be able to use basic clinical instruments so they can take a patient’s vital signs, such as heart rate and blood pressure.
Medical assistants who do not have postsecondary education learn their skills through on-the-job training. Physicians or other medical assistants may teach a new assistant medical terminology, the names of the instruments, how to do daily tasks, how to interact with patients, and other tasks that help keep an office running smoothly. Medical assistants also learn how to code both paper and electronic health records and how to record patient information. It can take several months for an assistant to complete training, depending on the facility.
Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations
Medical assistants are not required to be certified. However, employers prefer to hire certified assistants.
Several organizations offer certification. Some require the assistant to pass an exam, and others require graduation from an accredited program. In most cases, an applicant must be at least 18 years old before applying for certification.
The National Commission for Certifying Agencies, part of the Institute for Credentialing Excellence, accredits five certifications for medical assistants:
- Certified Medical Assistant (CMA) from the American Association of Medical Assistants (AAMA)
- Registered Medical Assistant (RMA) from American Medical Technologists
- National Certified Medical Assistant (NCMA) from the National Center for Competency Testing
- Certified Clinical Medical Assistant (CCMA) from the National Healthcareer Association
- Certified Medical Administrative Assistant (CMAA) from the National Healthcareer Association
Percent change in employment, projected 2012-22
- Medical assistants
- Other healthcare support occupations
- Total, all occupations
Employment of medical assistants is projected to grow 29 percent from 2012 to 2022, much faster than the average for all occupations. The growth of the aging baby-boom population will continue to spur demand for preventive medical services, which are often provided by physicians. As their practices expand, physicians will hire more assistants to perform routine administrative and clinical duties, allowing the physicians to see more patients.
An increasing number of group practices, clinics, and other healthcare facilities need support workers, particularly medical assistants, to do both administrative and clinical duties. Medical assistants work mostly in primary care, a steadily growing sector of the healthcare industry. In addition, federal health legislation will expand the number of patients who have access to health insurance, increasing patient access to medical care.
Additional demand also is expected because of new and changing tasks for medical assistants as part of the medical team. As more and more physicians’ practices switch to electronic health records (EHRs), medical assistants’ job responsibilities will continue to change. Assistants will need to become familiar with EHR computer software, including maintaining EHR security and analyzing electronic data, to improve healthcare information.
Medical assistants who earn certification may have better job prospects.
|Occupational Title||SOC Code||Employment, 2012||Projected Employment, 2022||Change, 2012-22||Employment by Industry|
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program
|Occupation||Description||Entry-Level Education||2012 Median Pay|
Dental assistants have many tasks, ranging from providing patient care and taking x rays to recordkeeping and scheduling appointments. Their duties vary by state and by the dentistsâ€™ offices where they work.'
|Postsecondary non-degree award||$34,500|
Dental hygienists get their training through either an associate’s or bachelor’s degree in dental hygiene. In some cases, students will have to have completed some general education credits before being accepted or continuing on to a dental hygiene program. College programs for this professions typically require coursework in the sciences and math, through class time, lab time, and clinical practice.
|Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses||
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|Postsecondary non-degree award||$41,540|
|Medical records and health information technicians||
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|Postsecondary non-degree award||$34,160|
|Occupational therapy assistants and aides||
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|Pharmacy technicians||Pharmacy technicians help licensed pharmacists dispense prescription medication to customers or health professionals.'||High school diploma or equivalent||$29,320|
|Physical therapist assistants and aides||
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|Psychiatric technicians and aides||
Psychiatric technicians and aides care for people who have mental illness and developmental disabilities. Technicians typically provide therapeutic care. Aides help patients in their daily activities and ensure a safe, clean environment.'
|High school diploma||$27,440|